Why did Lenin adapt Marx Stage Theory?
There are many reasons why Lenin adapted Marx stage theory. A vital motive was that Lenin longed for the communism foreshadowed in the Marx stage theory. However, in 1917 Russia was an underdeveloped country that had barely left feudalism. Therefore, in order to adopt the idyllic communist society, Russia would still have to drag through two Marxist stages (capitalism and socialism), which could potentially take centuries. After living in a feudalist society dominated by inequality and extreme poverty Lenin was determined to see a fair communist Russia.
Moreover, Marxism claimed that Russia must go through a capitalist stage before it could progress to a socialist society, which would bring Russia a step closer to communism. Nonetheless, Lenin believed that the middle classes in Russia were not strong enough to carry through a bourgeoisies-democratic revolution, which would create capitalism. The Russian bourgeoisie and middle class liberals had come onto the stage of history too late and would not play the same revolutionary role in the struggle against feudal absolutism as the French bourgeoisie. They feared the emerging working class too much. Lenin understood that if he were to live to see a communist Russia he would have to adapt Marxism, by boycotting capitalism and proceeding to an amalgamation of the bourgeoisies, and socialist revolution lead by a small group of elite revolutionaries whose purpose was to create class consciousness of workers.
Finally, in 1917 Russia was in chaos. The First World War had been raging for two and a half years. Over 1,700,000 military personnel had been butchered because they were badly prepared by the old feudalist government. Russia was continuously losing territory, and the war had sparked food shortages through out the country. Economically Russia was devastated; 8,000,000,000 roubles in war debts were outstanding, strangling the national economy of its breath....
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