Unit 4 - H&S Care

Topics: Old age, Gerontology, Heart Pages: 7 (2577 words) Published: September 1, 2013
Unit 4 Development through the life stages
P4 Explain the two theories of ageing
P5 Explain the physical and psychological changes which may be associated with ageing M2 Discuss two major theories in ageing in relation to the development of the individual M3 Discuss the effects on self-esteem and self-confidence, of the physical changes associated with ageing D2 Evaluate the influence of the two major theories of ageing on health and social care provisions. P4.

Disengagement Theory
This theory is based on the fact as we enter into the elderly stage of life; relationships begin to fall off as a result of diverse situations. Examples of diverse situations could be:- * Loss of a spouse, friend or relative and maybe a reduce number of close relationships held with anyone. * Illness or injuries or maybe natural deterioration of the body * Retirement, not being in contact with colleagues or not being as social as you were in work. * Children marrying and moving away from home then not seeing the parent as much as they did when they were at home. As the elderly individual experience these situation, a sense of loss places a gap between him/her and society, Symptoms could be withdrawal as they may become less involved with their formal circles and family. They may not venture from home as much as they used and visits outside is not as frequent as before. Simply said, the individuals start to disengage from life. Activity Theory

Activity theory on the other hand, sees a positive correlation between keeping active and ageing well. Growing old can mean different things for different people but this theory believes that if an individual was active when they were younger that middle adults will remain active as older adults. But they believe those who were less active when they were younger are more than likely to disengage as they age. Activity theory shows that older person independence is maintained that that they have a choice in what they want to do as well as value them as an individual. However the disengagement theory encourages very little independence, give older people little choice and treat everyone the same which is wrong as people have different needs to be met so cannot be treated the same. London, GBR: Hodder Education, 2010. p 95.

Physical Changes
Hormones/ Menopause
During puberty, a hormone activates our sex characteristics in result making us how we look and sometimes in result, how we act. However, as a women grows older they go through the menopause which is when the female hormone oestrogen which ends the woman from menstruating also the production of eggs that come from the ovaries (this means that woman are no longer able to have children) During the menopause, there are some symptoms and some changes in physical appearance such as:- * The skin becomes thinner

* The lack of oestrogen can affect a woman’s bladder and may find that you need to urinate more than before. * A slight risk increase in getting a stroke or heart disease after the menopause is over. * With the oestrogen levels going down, can be more undesirable changes such as cholesterol to high or the fat levels in the blood being high too, which has underlying effects with your heart. Men can also go through a slight menopause which is usually cause by the hormones not being produced or being slowly produced. However, even though sperm does not continue to produce as much as it used during the men’s younger days – they are still able to father children. http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/menopause.htm#ixzz2QdWT2Se8 London, GBR: Hodder Education, 2010. p 91.

In ageing, hormones can target organs; an example of this is the hypothalamus which is located in the brain produced hormones that control other structures in endocrine; even the hormones stay the same – the endocrine change as we age. The thyroid gland produces a hormone that can control metabolism but this usually slows down with...

References: London, GBR: Hodder Education, 2010.
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