The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial revolution began in England around 1760 and ushered in an era of transformation that not only affected manufacturing and business but also brought about many social changes as well. Two of the most significant social changes were the urbanization of populations into larger cities and the shift from home based work to employment in factory settings.
Prior to the Industrial revolution most of the population in England was spread over a large area with many families living on land where they had small farms or gardens to provide subsistence for themselves. Most business and manufacturing was completed in the home with most families having a trade to provide income that combined with their home based agriculture provided the means with which to live ("Industry and Economy," n.d.). As the Industrial Revolution began with the invention of machinery to complete this manufacturing many of these home based businesses were consolidated into factories where the machines were based thus spurring movement towards these factories as the work could no longer be performed in the home on effective scale. As manufacturing became factory based the centralization of the workforce lead to urbanization of the population and changed what had once been a agriculture based economy into a industrial based economy. With this growth in urbanization also came growth in the population that was sustained by the new economy, "In the eighty years or so after 1780 the population of Britain nearly tripled, the towns of Liverpool and Manchester became gigantic cities, the average income of the population more than doubled, the share of farming fell from just under a half to just under a fifth of the nation's output, and the making of textiles and iron moved into steam-driven factories "(D. N. McCloskey, 1981). This urbanization ushered in a new era with large cities becoming the foci of life for a large percentage of the population, a trend that...
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