SPICE Chart #2
Gender roles and relations
Family and kinship
Racial and ethnic constructions
Social and economic classes
Working class-people pushed out of tiny villages because of closure acts and had to find work in industries and become the working class. The working class was greatly affected because the skilled who were once valued were replaced with machines. Artisans and skilled workers had social mobility in the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Hey could work their way up. Their children could get an education and become middle class. The spinning wheel became mechanized. Because of this there was a huge need for weavers to weave because their job was not mechanized. The weavers soon joined the middle class. As the Industrial Revolution grew, gap shrinks and for the working class, it became hard for them to switch classes when weaving became mechanized. Workers became unskilled and were paid less. As the new factory system came in to play the working class was affected once again. The target workers were pauper children who were forced into semi-forced labor. Orphanages farmed them out and forced them to work. Factory Act of 1802- first act that regulated the pauper children but had no effect because no inspectors to enforce. Factory Act of 1833-children 14-18, 12 hour work day limit and for adults 16 hour limit. Factory owners were now required to set up schools. Prior to Industrial Revolution, cottage industry. Women and men worked alongside each other and were an economical unit but with factory work impossible to maintain house work. So men worked in the industry and women stayed home. Still patriarchal society. Ethnic groups lived together led to easier assimilation. Tenements torn down because of health hazards. Mexico gained their independence in 1824. There were major social issues. There was no way for the lower class to advance and only the rich benefitted from the Revolution. There were inequalities in wealth and no middle class existed. In Argentina, women could not vote, hold office, testify on court and when they married, their husband gained all her legal rights. Education slowly grew as well.
(Political)State-Building, Expansion and Conflict
Political structures and forms of governance
Nations and nationalism
Revolts and revolutions
Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations
The working class was greatly effected because the skilled who were once valued were replaced with machines. This resulted in the Luddit Movement which rejected new innovations and broke machines and wanted to go back to the old ways. Urban working class begins to realize their abuses. Class consciousness begins and labor movements begin. Result in an increase of trade unions and socialism Industrial Revolution began in Europe but first in Great Britain. It had rivers which provided power for the 1st factories. It had coal, textile, iron and steel. Enclosure Acts passed allowed for more land available for private use. This resulted in large, more efficient farms so no need for small farms. Many English peasants were no longer able to use the Commons for their own uses such as cattle grazing so they more to the cities. Farming also becomes less intensive. The Reasons for Revolution include many engineers for innovations, large amounts of wealth from the colonies. A stable government to support enterponeurs. Religious values emphasizing hard work. Large supplies of coal and iron and large numbers of people willing to work. Mexico gained their independence in 1824. General Santa Ana- Cuadillos in the 1830s. Extremely autocratic. He stormed the Alamo in Mexican American War. 1848- Treaty of Guagalupeltihildalgo ends the Mexican American War. Benito Jourez takes power and is seen as a hero (1850s). Conservatives who wants the power of church, little...
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