Historical Context of the Manifesto of the Communist Party Appearance
The Communist Manifesto was originally titled The Manifesto of the Communist Party (Das Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) and was written by Karl Marx and was edited by Frederick Engels. It was published for the first time in 1848 and became a topic for different debates from those times. The Communist Manifesto was republished for many times even during the life of its authors, however it never been amended. In the preface to the German edition in 1872, Engels said that The Communist Manifesto is a historical document and we have no right to change it. We should to mention that this major policy document provides a holistic and systematic exposition of the basic principles of Marxism, the main core of which is the doctrine of not only a world, but also a historic role of the proletariat as a class that considered to be the founder of communist society, moreover the doctrine of the proletariat to the ruling class, is the doctrine of the dictatorship of the proletariat. The Manifesto describes the main purposes of the communist party for ending of unfair exploitation of the working class full of suffering and creating a new society with equal rights and freedoms for all people, without social classes and social division. Taking into account historical context of those times we see that it was a spirited act to write The Manifesto, because in this document, Marx and Engels had abandoned in the face of all the forces of the old world proud words: “It is high time that Communists should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish their views, their aims, their tendencies, and meet this nursery tale of the Spectre of Communism with a manifesto of the party itself.” (Spalding, 2000) These words show us that Marx and Engels considered unnecessary to conceal their views and intentions. Both authors openly proclaimed that their goals can be achieved only by the forcible overthrow and even dethronement of all hitherto existing social order. They mentioned that ruling classes should be afraid of new social force, because proletarians have nothing to loose except their high goals, but in a case of their glory they would receive the whole world in their hands. Thus, we see that the relevance of The Manifesto needs no explanations and it could be titled the Bible of those times in the figurative sense. Working class needed a person who would be able to protect their rights and they received even two persons: Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. Summary of the Manifesto Main Ideas
As it was previously mentioned The Communist Manifesto was the first programmatic document of the scientific communism and the first program of the international communist organization. All the component parts of the great teaching of Marx and Engels received their systematic and complete exposition exactly in this document for the first time. Thinking about the main ideas of the discussed work Lenin even wrote about the Manifesto that “with the clarity and brilliance of genius, this work outlines a new world-conception, consistent with materialism, which also embrace the realm of social life; dialectics, as the most comprehensive and profound doctrine of development; the theory of the class struggle and of the world-historic revolutionary role of the proletariat—the creator of a new, communist society.” (Meyer, 1961) The first part of the Manifesto received the title Bourgeois And Proletarians and this title completely reflected its content. In this part of the Manifesto Marx began to explain the main notions of his time and stated that the history of man and society is the history of unceasing class struggles. In the acknowledgement of this words it is necessary to quote the part from the Manifesto: “Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an...
References: Labriola, A. (1999, Jan. – Apr.). In Memory of the Communist Manifesto. Social Scientist, Vol. 27, No. 1/4, pp. 3-48.
Marx, K. & Engels, F. (1848). The Communist Manifesto.
Meyer, A. (1961). Marxism since the Communist Manifesto. Service Center for Teachers of History.
Schumpeter, J. (1949, Jun.). The Communist Manifesto in Sociology and Economics. The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 199-212
Spalding, R. (2000). The Communist Manifesto. History Review.
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