Science and Technology as Engines of Economic Growth and Development
Maydene A Huie
Western Governors University
Social Consequences of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution brought many changes to western civilization. Two of the most significant social consequences of the Industrial Revolution are urban crowding and worker safety. Migration of workers to urban areas, where factory work was available, was a major contributor of over-crowding in these areas. This gave rise to increasing crime rates, housing, and sanitation issues (Zonderman, 1992 ). Unemployment was high and there was no job security. Injured workers were replaced without compensation. With the Industrial Revolution, child labor was common, as machines simplified the work and it was cheaper to pay children. Injury rates among factory workers were high. Small hands were easily caught in the machines. In the early 1830’s legislations were put in place to protect the workers (Honeyman, 2008). These early factory laws were concerned with health, safety, working hours and working conditions. Factory conditions were regulated by the states and in1833 the Factory Act was passed (Honeyman, 2008).
The Industrial Revolution and Capitalism
Capitalism is an economic system in which means of production are owned by individuals or private companies, who invest money to make a profit. Capitalism focuses on the free market with little or no governmental regulations. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, agriculture was the primary means of support and people worked within their homes (Zonderman, 1992 ). With the event of the Industrial Revolution society changed to one of commodities and production and the need to make individual profit. Machines gave rise to increased productivity and reduced the need for skilled or specialized laborers (Zonderman, 1992 ). The ability to produce goods on a large scale allowed for these goods to be...
References: Hands, G. (2011). Understanding Marx . London, GBR: Hodder Education.
Honeyman, K. (2008). Book Cover Child Workers in England, 1780-1820 : Parish Apprenticeship and the Making of the Early Industrial Labour Force. Abingdon, Oxon, GBR : Ashgate Publishing Group .
Zonderman, D. A. ( 1992 ). Book Cover Aspirations and Anxieties : New England Workers and the Mechanized Factory System, 1815-1850. Cary, NC, USA : Oxford University Press .
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