SOCIOLOGY CIA III
“We live with tensions of constraining structures and creative meanings .Sociology sees this tension everywhere”.
Christina Manuel – 1313224 2 nd BA PSEnglish 4 th Semester
“Political Economy regards the proletarian ... like a horse, he must receive enough to enable him to work. It does not consider him, during the time when he is not working, as a human being. It leaves this to criminal law, doctors, religion, statistical tables, politics, and the beadle. ~ Marx, Wages of Labour (1844)”
Sociology is a scientific endeavor .Studying human beings , however is different from observing events in the physical world . Through our own actions we are constantly creating and recreating the societies in which we live . Society is not a static or unchanging entity ; social institutions are continuously being reproduced over time and space through the repeated actions of individuals . Sociologists view society as plagued with divisions , tensions and struggles .To them it is illusory to claim that people tend to live amicably with one another most of the time . Even when there are no open confrontations , they say , there remain deep divisions of interest which at some point are liable to break out into active conflicts . Sociological conflict theory is largely a synthesis of these two traditions with primary focus on the unequal distribution of rewards in society . Karl Marx is the leading architect of conflict theories . C. Wright Mills , Ralf Dahrendorf , Irving Louis Horowitz , Lewis Coser , Herbert Murcuse , Andre Gunder Frank and Randoll Collins are among the noted theorists of contemporary sociology . The idea of universal competition taken from modern conflict theory became central of classical economics. Racial tensions , class war , religious conflicts , strikes and protests , student power movements , revolutions , peasant upraising and the like often become subject of analysis for conflict theories .All societies probably involve some kind of general agreement over values , and all certainly involve conflict .Out of all these conflicts and struggles , class and class struggle is the most relevant and important . Generally speaking , conflict theories tend to be more specific , restricted to interrelationship between two or more units within the society .
Karl Marx ,the great Sociologist ,Philosopher , Psychologist , Environmentalist , Journalist , Revolutionist , historian , social scientist , Economist , Political analyst was born as the son of Heinrich and Henrietta on May 5 , 1818 In Germany. He was educated at home until he was 12 and spend five years , from 1830 to 1835 at the Jesuit High School in Trier , which was earlier known as Friedrich-Wilhelm Gymnasium . At his age of 17 ,1835 , he entered the University of Bonn to study Law . At the end of the year , Marx was enrolled in The University of Berlin .In Berlin he studied Philosophy and Law . In 1841 , Marx received his doctorate in Philosophy from University of Berlin . After graduation he become a writer for liberal-radical newspaper and within ten months he become its editor-in-chief .His early works sprinkled with democratic principles , humanism and idealism .In August of 1844 , Marx worked along with Friedrich Engels for a journal named ‘Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher (German-French Annals)’. Engels then become Marx’s lifelong friend and collaborator .Together they began to write criticisms of the Philosophy of Bruno Bauer , former friend of Marx , who was a young Hegelian .The result of this collaborated work was published in 1845 as ‘The Holy Family’. That year, Marx moved to Belgium as he was expelled from France while writing for another radical newspaper, ‘Vorwärts!’, which had strong ties to an organization that would later...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document