'' Which factors led to the civil war in Spain? Why did the war breakout in July 1936? ''
Francisco Abadal Ramon
Section A: Plan of investigation
This paper investigates ''to what extent did the left wing political opposition lead to the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939?'' In order to reach to a valid conclusion this investigation will be focusing on the comparison of different factors that took place before an during the Spanish Civil War, such as the role of the Spanish Army and the Church, the nature of the economy and the new left wing ideologies. The method of investigation will be a detailed research of primary source evidence such as speeches, and as well reliable secondary source material. This study is worthwhile since history is being generally forgotten and specifically this war that lead to WWI.
Section B: Summary of evidence
· The Spanish Civil War started when Franco and its troops invaded Spain from the Morocco, in July 1936. The aim was to overthrown the unstable Republic. There was a response from the working class, which went further that by just simple revolts in the streets. It lead to a revolution and a civil war between the fascism and the left side which included socialists, communists and anarchists.1
· Before the Spanish Civil War began, Spain was a passing through the Second Republic, born in 1931. Its president was Manuel Azaña.2 The Second Republic was established after Primo de Rivera resignation in 1930, having not resolved any economic issue in Spain. Spain had massive debts, and after the Wall Street Crash (1929) it was even worse. After a coalition of parties between the republicans, the liberals, the socialists and the Catalans, the King Alfonso XIII exiled voluntary, leading to the Second Republic.3
· The Spanish Economy was based on agriculture. At Centre and South Spain, the land was usually owned by the state. Riots were braking out in the countryside. The Church creates ''The Catholic Agrarian Federation''. It consisted on providing support to a several number of farmers in return of their rejections for the new ideologies. As well the Spanish industrialization was very little. The workers received very low wages and very poor working conditions.4 Men suffered unemployment, due to the over productions of some factories that lead to more economic issues. The labour force, socialists and communists, blamed the middle-upper class, and looked towards Russia for guidance.5
·The Spanish army had a very powerful politician position. It was like the protector of the nation. It had the right to intervene in politics if required (1820, 1871, 1923 and 1936). It was very unpopular with the people, with a reputation of brutally. People had to pay high taxes in order to maintain it. It showed ineffectiveness keeping control of Morocco (1906-1926). The middle-upper classes defend their interests.
·The Church was very rich and powerful. They had a big influence in the education, an so political and social. The Church supported the conservatism, and was opposed to modern and liberal forces. The aristocracy was very close to the Church. Many riots were organized in urban and rural areas, by the labour force, against the Church.
· Different political parties with different ideologies existed, which were opposed to the Spanish political status. This liberal movement was composed by: socialists, communists and anarchists. All these parties played a crucial role in the revolution.
·In February 1936 a progressive Popular Front was elected. The conservative forces gathered to plan resistance against it, a military raise.6
·''A country can live under a monarchy or a republic, with a parliamentary or a presidential system, under Communism or Fascism. But it cannot live in anarchy... we are today present at the funeral service of a democracy.'' (Gil Robles 1936)7
· The Spanish Civil War was worldwide known as the war between fascism...
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