Previous decades have seen considerable changes within implementation of human resource planning. The following report has been devised in order to analyse occurrence and reasoning of these changes. The following points shall be reviewed:
Identification of the different drivers which affect organisational management.
Analysis of the changes in human resource management implementation consequential of the above stated changes.
Explanation of adaptations of the recruitment and selection procedure adopted by organisations to support these changes.
The above information shall be gathered by review of corporate literature, scholary texts and Internet resources. Andrew Carney of the School of Management and Business Enterprise, St Mary's University College, requested the report to be submitted as an individual business report on 4th May 2007.
The business environment comprises of a wide range of forces, which may lead to complications with regard to organisational performance. Each organisation shall have to adapt in order to stay ahead of these issues. The way in which an organisation responds to these factors varies depending upon such things as size and the industry within which they are placed.
There are numerous factors within the business environment which have proved influential to organisational management. These key drivers which have lead to change in human resource management (HRM) policies are mainly identified as "Cultural, political and economic forces" (Devanna, 1984. Cited Beardwell & Holden, 1997:15).
Social influences manifest as such things as the social contract', which sets examples of minimum wage, health and safety, social protection and freedom of movement. These are all important points insisted upon by employees.
A successful employment relationship must also be maintained in order to keep both employers and staff content. The Employment Relations Act (1999)' is an example of government policy administered in order to maintain employment relationships. This emphasises leave, trade unions, disciplinary/grievance hearings and individual rights. The "Data Protection Act (1998)' and the Freedom of Information Act (2000)' also regulate the employment relationship. These acts are a major driver of change if not previously practiced.
Today's culture has been witness to many technological advances. Technology has had a substantial effect on the likes of company administration. For instance, improvement in database software, payroll administration and work practices. Research and development, on both an individual and corporate level, has been eased due to incorporation of new technology.
Political issues are an additional area of impact. United Kingdom legislation sets out many legal expectations prone to modification. Areas not previously incorporated into company ethics now have to be administered and managed. Pay levels and dismissal procedures are legislative examples to which an organisation must conform. Issues have again proved problematic in managerial implementation with reference to recent governmental proposals. For example, the introduction of parental and maternity leave regulations highlight a need for a greater level of staff management. Trade union recognition places further weight upon an employer.
The 1980's saw Great Britain overshadowed by countries boasting economic success, particularly Japan and Germany, who had prioritised elevated levels of employee management within their corporations. "The highly publicised Companies of Excellence Literature suggested that high performance organisations were characterised by a strong commitment to human resource management' (Boddy, 2002:265). This raised questions with regard to the U.K's management techniques. Similarly, this time period also brought with it many competitive forces. The introduction of the free market saw the rest of the world gaining the option to trade openly. This would again...
Cited: in Beardwell & Holden, 1997:25). This conversation may be carried out on either a formal or informal basis, with most modernised organisations preferring the latter. However, the technique still possesses drawbacks. Many interviewers appear unreliable at choosing a suitable candidate. Personal beliefs and assumptions are often unintentionally intertwined. Interviewers may similarly compare candidates to a pre-determined ideal. An applicant 's first impression will strongly dictate their success, often within the first few minutes of interview. For this reason, other selection methods are often incorporated in addition to the interview process.
HRM techniques have strived to adapt the interview process through training and development schemes for staff. HR 's emphasis on teamwork has lead to members of the workforce included on an interview board, as well as the traditional personnel presence.
5.4 Testing – Selection tests, also known as psychometric tests, are carried out in order to assess a candidates performance competence. There are a number of selection tests of which an employer may wish to include.
Aptitude tests concentrate on an individuals performance ability within a job role. An example of this is a job sample carried out by the applicant.
Intelligence tests are similar in the fact that they give indication of a candidate 's mental ability.
Personality tests are frequently incorporated by many human resource based organisations. These allow for insight into individual characteristics, which may enhance or limit job performance. This method again conforms to HRM 's ideology of suiting a job to a candidate.
Although psychometric testing enjoys ever-growing popularity, drawbacks present themselves with respect to their productiveness. It is integral that the tests are compiled and/or administered by a qualified professional, otherwise gathered information may have no relevance. Similarly, participants may prove biased in their given answers, responding in a way conforming to perceived organisational aspects. However, psychometric tests still remain popular throughout human resource based selection procedure. This is due to a focus on possible ability rather than previous performance.
5.5 Assessment centres – Assessment centres allow for direct observation of work-related tasks. This technique conforms to HR policy due to the incorporation of highly trained panel members. The application of different exercises lends an advantage in generating a realistic example of the employment atmosphere. Although these advantages are downsized by a high cost, use of an assessment centre is popular within the HR profession. HR policy gives preference to the assessment centre 's ability to demonstrate levels of group work and verbal expression.
6.1 The differing techniques available to assist the selection process have been modified due to the influence of drivers of change adapting human resource policy. Organisations have placed direct emphasis upon an absolute need to recruit a workforce adaptable to substantial organisational change. Recently adopted HR ideals stress a need to appoint staff for the good of the organisation, in contrast to the good of the job itself. In order to fulfil this ideal, the HR model strives to grow initiate a highly diverse and motivated employee base. Focus is placed upon examination of an organisation as a whole, rather than simply scrutinising a vacancy. This lends advantage in that applicants ' tend to be highly committed towards the growth and success of their employer. An emphasis on desired characteristics of each employee demonstrates a decline in unwanted aspects of absence and high staff turnover.
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