In any organisation gaining and sustaining a competitive advantage is of critical importance in how successful and profitable the organisation is or can be. A competitive advantage according to Michael Porter (1985) “is the extent to which an organization is able to create a defensible position over its competitors” In that regard, in order for organisations to facilitate the gaining and sustaining of a competitive advantage, they must ensure that all of their resources are effectively and efficiently managed. However with the constant changes in the environment of business, organisations can no longer depend on just having the best equipment or the closet proximity to customers, but this is where having competent human resources becomes essential. According to the Oxford University Press dictionary of Human Resource Management (2001) human resource management “is a means through which an organisation can gain a competitive advantage. The employees are one of the key factors in an organisation, and through carefully developing and managing them; they will ultimately be the critical factors that distinguish successful orgainsation from unsuccessful organisation.” Armstrong and Baron (2002) defines employee resourcing as “one of the key strategic human resource management functions”, they also state that employee resourcing focuses on matching resources to the needs of the organisation while ensuring the proper utilization of these resources. However before any organisation can match human resources to their organisations there must be some level of planning involved. Hence human resource planning according to DeCenzo and Robbins (1989) “is the process by which any organisation ensures that it has the right number and right kind of people, at the right place, at the right time, capable of effectively completing those tasks that will help the organisation achieve its overall objectives.”
To illustrate the relevance of human resource planning as a root of effective employee resources in order to maintain and sustain a competitive advantage Company X is used as an example. This company is a newly opened telecommunication company that is located in Barbados that provides services for many Barbadians. However, because of the dynamic and rapid changes in technology Company X needs to be able to survive as well as get ahead of its competitors, this can only be done by being flexible and easily adapting to the changes in its environment. As a new company survival, expansion and development are its primary objectives, as it aims to have a sustainable competitive advantage. Within Company X human resource planning would have implications on job analysis, recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and performance management, as planning sets the foundation of human resource management to perform all these functions. To first demonstrate how human resource planning in Company X can be the root of effective employee resourcing is by providing information for the HR manager of the company to first find the appropriate resourcing. According to Dessler (2009) a job analysis “is the procedure for determining the duties and skill requirement of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.” For instance if Company X needs technicians, from human resource planning the manager of Company X will know the demand of technicians needed and supply of technicians the organisation has, and from that information is able to determine the number of technicians to be hired whether it be internally or externally. This clearly shows how important human resource planning is when it comes to analyzing jobs. At this stage, the job analysis is completed and the next step is for Company X is to start recruiting and selecting technicians. Recruitment is finding or attracting applicants for an employer’s opened position while selection is the selecting of the best applicant for the job (Dessler, 2009). The link...
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