INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
The Concept of Human Resource Management
Human resources is a term used to refer to how people are managed by organizations. It was basically a traditionally administrative function but with time it focuses and recognizes talented and engaged people and organizational success. Human resources has at least two related interpretations depending on context. The original usage was traditionally called labour. It is a measure of the work done by human beings. This perspective is changing as a function of new and ongoing research into more strategic approaches. This first usage is used more in terms of 'human resources development', and can go beyond just organizations to the level of national importance. The more traditional usage within corporations and businesses refers to the individuals within a firm or agency, and to the portion of the organization that deals with hiring, firing, training, and other personnel issues, typically referred to as 'human resources management'. The terms "human resource management" and "human resources" (HR) have largely replaced the term "personnel management" as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. In simple sense, HRM means employing people, developing their resources, "personnel management" as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. Human resource management is to maximize the return on investment from the organization's human capital and minimize financial risk. Presently Human Resource Management is an integral but distinctive part of management. Its objective is the maintenance of better human relations in the organization by the development, application and evaluation of policies, procedures and programs relating to human resources to optimize their contribution towards the realization of organizational objectives. HRM helps in attaining maximum individual development, desirable working relationship between employees and employers, employees and employees, and effective modeling of human resources as contrasted with physical resources. It is the recruitment, selection, development, utilization, compensation and motivation of human resources by the organization. Generally, human resource management refers to the management of the entire workforce of an organization in a reliable, honest and professional manner. It is the responsibility of human resource managers in a corporate context to conduct these activities in an effective, legal, fair, and consistent manner. That’s why the demand of Human Resource (HR) management has been dramatically increased these days. From corporate sector to banking industry, from non profit organizations to human protection groups, from IT solution companies to printing industry; human resource management is playing a critical role in all the other sectors of the economy. Evolution of Human resource management
Kautilya provides a systematic treatment of management of human resources as early as 4th century B.C. in his treatise titled "Artha-Shastra". There prevailed logical procedures and principles in respect of labour organizations such as Shreni or guild system and co-operative sector. The wages were paid strictly in terms of quantity and quality of work turned out and punishment were imposed for unnecessarily delaying the work or spoiling it. The Government used to take active interest in the operation of both public and private sector enterprises and provided well-enunciated procedures to regulate employer-employee relationship. Kautilya provides an excellent discussion on staffing and personnel management embracing job descriptions, qualifications for jobs, selection procedure, executive development, incentive systems and performance evaluation. In course of time, the guild system was followed by cooperative sector consisting of craftsmen and traders, and purporting to promote their professional interests. Numerous professional...
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