Human Resource Management

Topics: Human resource management, Human resources, Management Pages: 9 (2835 words) Published: July 11, 2013
http://search.conduit.com/Results.aspx?q=What+the+histpory+of+human+resource+management&SearchSource=49&CUI=UN13966217220430223&ctid=CT3301631&UM=1&sspv=CHNTR2 History of Human Resource Management

In today's world, employees stand out as the most important resource to any company. Recruitment of effective and able employees can add to the profitability in any organization substantially. Most companies today practice Human Resource Management, which is nothing but managing the process of recruiting, developing and fostering the workforce. The modern era witnesses continuous changes in policies by companies in order to develop their workforce. Today, a special management department has been incorporated by organizations to work out factors related to manpower. In spite of being added as a subject in management courses only recently, HRM (Human Resource Management) has been a concept that was utilized ever since human beings started following an organized way of life. This form of management could be seen even during ancient times, when only the 'best' soldiers were recruited in royal armies, or the 'best' individuals related to a particular job were given preference. Though the practices have gone through a lot of changes, the moral remains the same. Given below is a little more on the history of HRM.

A Brief History of Human Resource Management

Pre-historic Times
Some of the vital principles of HRM were used in prehistoric times, like mechanisms being developed for selecting tribal leaders. Knowledge was recorded and passed on to the next generation about safety, health, hunting, and gathering food.

2000 BC to 1000 BC saw the development of more advanced HR functions. The Chinese are known to be the first to use employee screening techniques, way back in 1115 BC, while the Greeks started using the apprentice system in 2000 BC. These practices showed the importance of selecting and training the right individuals for related jobs.

The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution, which started in England during the late 1700s AD, brought a lot of transformation in the practices of production. Hand-made goods were replaced by machine-made goods, cottage industries were replaced by large factories, and small-scale production gave way to large-scale production. Under the impact of the Industrial Revolution, the US economy also converted itself from agri-based to industry-based. The new system required an extremely well-organized structure, and led to recruitment of a large number of people. Moreover, the Industrial Revolution brought in a huge number of immigrants. To create employment for all the immigrants, recruitment and management of individuals gained vitality. The period saw the rise of a special class of managers who were considered higher than the less privileged employees. This newly developed system created a gap between the labor force and the bureaucrat or management. With the passage of time, the gap grew wider and the condition of the lower class deteriorated. As such, there was a blaring need for human resource management.

Early human resource management, in general, followed a social welfare approach. It aimed at helping immigrants in the process of adjusting to their jobs and to an 'American' way of life. The main aim behind these programs was to assist immigrants in learning English and acquiring housing and medical care. Also, techniques were used to promote supervisory training that ensured an increase in productivity.

Labor Unions
The plight of the laborers and workers brought 'Labor Unions' into the scene. With the advent of these unions in the 1790s, power in the hands of the employees multiplied considerably, and increased at a rapid pace in the 1800s and 1900s. This led to the HR department having to become more capable in politics and diplomacy. Two feats that were quintessential to the importance of human resources were that it was the HR department that got...
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