Chapter 23 Building of European Suprem

Topics: Socialism, Working class, Middle class Pages: 11 (4267 words) Published: December 15, 2014
 scrindMr. Dunbar
AP European History
Chapter 23: The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War I Outline

Chapter Overview
New steel mills, railways, shipyards, and chemical plants reflected an expanding supply of capital goods in Europe during the second half of the nineteenth-century. By the first decade of the twentieth century, the age of the automobile, the airplane, the bicycle, the refrigerated ship, the telephone, the radio, the typewriter, and the electric light bulb had dawned. Nation-states with large electorates, political parties, and centralized bureaucracies emerged. Section One: Population Trends and Migration

Section Overview
The number of Europeans had risen from approximately 226 million in 1850 to 401 million in 1900 and to 447 million in 1910. Europe’s population on the move
Mid-century emancipation of serfs lessened the authority of landlords and made legal movement and migration. Railways, steamships, and better roads increased mobility.
Cheap land and better wages led some to emigrate from Europe to North America, Latin America, and Australia. More than 50 million European left their homelands between 1846 and 1932. Many in Europe moved from rural to urban settings.

Emigration trends
In 1850, most emigrants were from Great Britain (especially Ireland), Germany, and Scandinavia. After 1885, emigration from southern and eastern Europe rose. Section Two: The Second Industrial Revolution

Section Overview
The economic gap between Britain and the rest of the Continent narrowed as Belgium, Germany, and France rapidly expanded their heavy industries. German steel production surpassed Britain’s in 1893 and was nearly double that of Britain by the outbreak of World War I. New Industries

In contrast to the first industrial revolution, the second industrial revolution was associated with steel, chemicals, electricity, and oil. Henry Bessemer (1830-1898)
English engineer who discovered a new process for manufacturing steel cheaply in large quantities. Solway Process
Replaced the older Leblanc process and that led to an increase in production of sulfuric acid, laundry soap, and new dyestuffs and plastics were developed Electrical energy applied to production
First public power plant constructed in 1881 in Great Britain Homes, streetcars, and subway systems soon used electrical power Gottlieb Daimler (1834-1900)
German who invented the modern internal combustion engine used to power cars France initially took the lead in auto manufacturing but cars were a novelty for only the wealthy. Henry Ford (1863-1947)

Made the automobile available to masses
Economic Difficulties
Second half of the nineteenth century
1850-1873 both industry and agriculture prospered
1873-1900 both slowed
Strikes were common during this era
Economic downturn fed the growth of socialist political parties Problems for European agricultural products
European foodstuffs were in competition with products from all over the world now that transportation and refrigeration had improved. Several European banks failed in 1873 and the rate of capital investment slowed. Consumerism and economic recovery by 1900

As the economy strengthened and urbanization increased, demand rose for consumer products. New forms of retailing—like department stores, chain malls, and mail order catalogs appeared

Section Three: The Middle Classes in Ascendancy
Social Distinctions within the Middle Class
Most prosperous members lived in splendor that rivaled the lifestyle of the aristocracy For example W.H. Smith, the owner of railway newsstands, was made a member of the House of Lords. Comfortable, small entrepreneurs and professional people

Capable of owning private homes, large quantities of furniture, pianos, pictures, books, journals, education for their children, and vacations Usually educated
Also included shopkeepers, schoolteachers, librarians, and others who had skills derived from education “White –collar...
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