The Making of Industrial Society
The industrial revolution began in
a. the United States.
b. Great Britain.
Crucial to industrialization was
a. the leadership role taken by the Luddites.
b. the willing support of the major industrial unions.
c. the peasants’ planned and willing relocation to the cities. d. the leading role that Russia provided in technology.
e. the replacement of human and animal power with inanimate sources of energy such as steam. Answer: e
The growing demand for cotton cloth in the eighteenth century threatened British a. wool producers.
b. monopoly over the Chinese silk trade.
c. naval strength because of the dramatically rising cost of sails. d. educational dominance.
e. trade with the Americas.
The British Calico Acts of 1720 and 1721
a. restricted British importation of cotton cloth to the Americas. b. showed favoritism to cotton producers over wool producers. c. prohibited the importation of cotton cloth.
d. required that a corpse be buried in a cotton shroud.
e. encouraged the importation of printed cotton cloth in an effort to boost British trade. Answer: c
The inventor of the flying shuttle was
a. John Kay.
b. Samuel Crompton.
c. Josiah Wedgwood.
d. James Watt.
e. Edmund Cartwright.
The invention of the flying shuttle
a. powered the first steam-driven locomotive.
b. made the steam engine possible.
c. led to the passage of the Calico Acts.
d. gave the British an unquestioned military advantage.
e. sped the weaving process.
Which of the following is NOT a correct pairing of inventor and invention? a. James Watt and steam engine
b. Josiah Wedgwood and “mule”
c. John Kay and flying shuttle
d. John Bessemer and converter
e. Edmund Cartwright and power loom
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Edmund Cartwright was responsible for the invention of the a. steam-driven locomotive.
c. steam engine.
d. power loom.
e. flying shuttle.
James Watt invented a more efficient steam pump when he
a. redesigned the flying shuttle.
b. restructured the engine’s compressor.
c. copied and consolidated several important American inventions. d. invented a more efficient method of steel production.
e. figured out how to make a piston turn a wheel for rotary motion. Answer: e
James Watt’s steam engine did not adapt well to transportation uses because a. it weighed too much to be supported by rubber tires.
b. the heat, combined with the vibrations of movement, caused instability in the structural integrity. c. the engine grew too hot and often exploded.
d. it used too much gasoline to be cost efficient.
e. it consumed too much coal.
Cheaper iron was produced after 1709 when British smelters began to use what substance as a fuel? a. kerosene
Henry Bessemer’s innovations made it possible to produce cheaper a. iron.
The first steam-powered locomotive was George Stephenson’s a. Rocket.
The dominant form of industrial organization by the end of the nineteenth century was a. the putting-out system.
b. cottage industry.
c. the factory system.
d. the guild system.
e. a socialist-directed economy.
a. were the first utopian socialist thinkers.
b. were the industrial workers that Marx felt would be the eventual victors in the revolution. c. led the movement away from traditional crafts manufacture and toward the factory system. d. were crafts workers who destroyed textile machines.
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