Amylases: Enzymes that Breakdown Starch

Topics: Starch, Enzyme, Ethanol Pages: 3 (695 words) Published: July 14, 2013
What are amylases?
Amylases are enzymes that break down starch or glycogen.
Amylases are produced by a variety of living organisms, ranging from bacteria to plants and humans. Bacteria and fungi secrete amylases to the outside of their cells to carry out extracellular digestion. When they have broken down the insoluble starch, the soluble end products such as (glucose or maltose) are absorbed into their cells. Amylases are classified based on how they break down starch molecules i. α-amylase (alpha-amylase) - Reduces the viscosity of starch by breaking down the bonds at random, therefore producing varied sized chains of glucose ii. ß-amylase (Beta-amylase) - Breaks the glucose-glucose bonds down by removing two glucose units at a time, thereby producing maltose

iii. Amyloglucosidase (AMG) - Breaks successive bonds from the non-reducing end of the straight chain, producing glucose
Many microbial amylases usually contain a mixture of these amylases. Why bother about amylases?
Humans exploit microbial amylases for the following purposes: 1. High Fructose Corn syrup preparation
2. Additives to detergents for removing stains
3. Saccharification of starch for alcohol production
4. Brewing
What organisms are responsible for amylase production?
Although many microorganisms produce this enzyme, the ones most commonly used for their industrial production are Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus amyloliquifaciens and Aspergillus niger

General Lab Requirements:
• Autoclave or pressure cooker
• Hot Plate or Microwave oven
• Nutrient Agar powder
• Potato Dextrose Agar powder
• Soluble starch
• Weighing scales
• Shaker
• Spectrophotometer or colorimeter
• Water bath (Temperature controlled)
Materials per group of 4 students
• Hand trowel or disposable spoons
• Sterile pipettes (One each of 10 mL, 5 mL and 1 mL)
• Pipette pumps
• Six bottles of sterile water, containing 90 mL each
• Sterile Glass Petri dishes or Pre-sterilized disposable...
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Starch Hydrolysis by Amylase Essay
  • Essay on Amylase Activity on Starch
  • Enzyme Amylase Essay
  • Enzymes: Enzyme and Salivary Amylase Solution Research Paper
  • Essay on Digestion of Starch by Salivary Amylase
  • The Effect of Ph and Temperature for Amylase on Starch Research Paper
  • Planning Coursework-Starch and Amylase Essay
  • Enzyme Kinetics Lab Report: The reaction rate of enzyme, '-amylase in Starch-Iodine solution at different temperatures and pH levels Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free