Aging Biology

Topics: Senescence, Gerontology, Ageing Pages: 6 (1288 words) Published: March 27, 2015


Aging
Biology
Megen Clarke

As time goes on its inevitable that a human or animals age, there is no stopping time on a human’s body. It is the build-up of changes in a person over time. With humans, aging is referred to as a multidimensional procedure of physical, social and psychological transformation. In some dimensions, aging it grow and expand over time, whereas in others, it may decline. An example of this is reaction time; it may slow with age while information of world events and knowledge may increase. Even later in life, study has shown that there is potential for physical, mental, and social development.  It is important for aging to happen because it is a vital part of human societies reflecting the biological changes.  Aging is the continuous damage of physiological functions that raises the likelihood of death. Aging is among the largest known risk factors for most human diseases. Each day, about 100,000 people worldwide die from age-related causes. Age is measured chronologically with the person’s birthday being a significant occasion. There can be various types of terms for aging; universal aging, probabilistic aging, chronological aging, biological aging, proximal aging, distal aging, and population aging. Aging is very ambiguous.  With universal aging, it is the age change that everyone shares. Whereas, with probabilistic aging happens with age changing occurring within some people as they growing older but not all. Things like type two diabetes can happen in this process. Chronological aging can also be called social aging which is the maturity level expectation of people as they grow older. Biological aging, an organism’s physical state as it grows older. Proximal aging is the age based effects that comes because of influences in the recent past.  Distal aging can be traced back in the early stages of someone’s life, such as childhood poliomyelitis can be found. Chronological age and functional age cannot coordinate together because someone age can be different from their mental or physical capacities. With population aging, it’s the growth in number and percentage of older people in society. Three possible causes of population aging could be relocation, longer life expectancy or decreased birth rate. With aging, there is a decline in function especially within cells. Neurons in the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscle, and kidney cells are no longer in the cell cycle. Tissue and organs made of cells that are reloaded by mitosis over the course of life are blood and intestinal epithelium, in which they show fewer signs of aging. In the beginning of the 20thcentury pneumonia and influenza was the cause of most deaths as opposed to natural causes. Now the roles have reversed. With the amounts of antibiotics, sanitation and immunization the average life span has extended and the cause of death being natural causes has risen. Things like cardiovascular disease and cancer has become the most common cause of death. Biological basis of aging is unknown at this point but the rate of aging varies within different species, it is genetically based. In model organisms and laboratory surroundings, scientists have proven that designated modifications in precise genes can extend a lifespan quite a bit in the nematodes. Reasons for the expansion of life span can be for a few reasons; genetic changes that increase DNA repair, decrease of oxidative damage or reduce cell suicide due to DNA damage. A primary model organism for studying aging is the nematode C. elegans. The reason for this is because of their short lifespan, the capability to perform genetic manipulations or knock down genes with RNA interference with ease.  C. elegans were first discovered with the most known mutations and RNA interferences targets that extend the lifespan. There is aging in invertebrates and in vertebrates. Invertebrate animals haven given vital clues about the aging procedure. Colonial invertebrates,...

References: Biological Aging Theories (2009) Retrieved from http://www.programmed-aging.org/theories/
Biology of Aging (November 2011) National Institute on Aging Retrieved from
http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/aging-under-microscope/living-long-and-well-can-we-do-both-are-they-same
Why do we age? (2012) Today I Foundout Retrieved from
http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2014/05/age/
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