The Age of Enlightenment & French/American Revolutions
* A philosophical movement in the 18th century characterized by the belief in the power of human reason and in the critical use of the intellect to reform society in accordance with rational principles. (Reason over tradition)
* William Blake was a poet of the Romanticism movement concerned with the state of society. He challenged society and the prevailing modes of thought with his own unique and individualistic romantic vision. * William’s two main works were ‘Songs of innocence’ (1789) and ‘Songs of experience’ (1794)
* Adam Smith advocated a capitalist economy in which people could freely pursue their own self-interest with government repression. But, if pursuit of self-interest led to oppression and greed, that's when the government should intervene with their invisible hand. * Adam was a key figure in Scottish enlightenment.
* The Wealth of Nations, is considered his greatest work and the first modern work of economics.
* Political or social philosophy in which the welfare of the nation-state as an entity is considered the most important above all. * Liberals who believed that the struggle for unification and freedom from foreign oppression was extension of the struggle for individual rights. * The unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion and national symbols.
* William was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature. * Known for introducing novel poetic theories and techniques. * Wordsworth's magnum opus is generally considered to be The Prelude, which was not published during his lifetime.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
* Samuel was an English poet, literary critic and philosopher, who with William Wordsworth was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England. * He was a major influence on American transcendentalism. * Transcendentalism core beliefs were the inherent goodness of both people and nature. * They also believed that religion and political parties ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual. * His major works are the poems The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan
Francois-Noel Babeuf (Gracchus Babeuf)
* Babeuf was a French political agitator and journalist of the French revolutionary period. * Although the words anarchist and communist did not exist in Babeuf’s lifetime, they have all been used to describe his ideas later. * Babeuf’s main work was Conspiracy of the Equal.
Ernst Moritz Arndt
* Ernst was a German nationalistic author and poet.
* He fought for the abolition of Serfdom and later against Napoleon’s dominance over Germany. * Serfdom is a condition of bondage or modified slavery, which developed during the high middle ages. * He is one of the main founders of German nationalism and movement for German unification. * One of his most remarkable works books was Geschichte der Leibeigenschaft in Pommern und Ru(y)gen.
Europe 1815-1848: The Revolts of Conservatives, Romantics, Liberals and Nationalists
Prince Clemens Von Metternich
* Metternich was a German/Austrian politician and states man of Rhenish extraction and one of the most important diplomats of his era. * Metternich rejected the enlightenment.
* He was a conservative thinker.
* He was Austrian.
* Metternich chaired the Congress of Vienna.
The Congress of Vienna
* The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Clemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815. * The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. * Create a...
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