Early 20th Century

Topics: World War I, Socialism, Social class Pages: 6 (1646 words) Published: September 10, 2013
The nature of European society-
* Rich and poor
* In 1901 world population 1600 million
* 25% lived in Europe
* 1880-1914 25 million migrated from Europe- mostly to USA ‘land of opportunity’ * An individual’s ‘membership’ of the upper, lower or middle class reflected her or his economic role within society. * Poverty cycle hard to break

* Industrialisation
* Western Europe- industrialised
* Industrialisation helped the military, medical and communication= better imperial expansion * Britain and Germany were Europe’s industrial giants
* Germany world leader in engineering
* Their industrial strength enabled them to impose their political, social, religious, economic, cultural influence throughout the world. * Planes, trains, phones, electricity and fridges were invented * Industrialisation hand in hand with urbanisation

* If you don’t industrialise your left behind
* To improve power, influence and living standards. You need: technological advances and the degree of its commitment to modernisation * A major catalyst for challenge and change to the old political, social, economic and cultural order of the 20th century. Because: encouraged urbanisation- the move from country to town * Urbanisation

* Spread of disease became a major problem
* Where your house was located reflected social classes
* Social change
* Change in women’s traditional roles
* Women everywhere were second class citizens- no matter wealth * They wanted suffrage- the right to vote
* Challenging traditional religious influence
* Christianity favoured- sectarianism- one religious view more superior * Different forms of government
* Dynastic rulers- rulers who have inherited their power * -Dynastic authority- the power exercised by rulers, as a result of the lengthy period of time during which their family has ruled * -In 1901, dynastic rulers governed a number of imperial powers * Example of Dynastic Rulers

* Emperor Franz Josef’s family, the Hapsburgs- Austria since 15th century * Kaiser Wilhelm II’s family, the Hohenzollerns- Germany since the 15th century * Tsar Nicholas II, Romanovs- Russia since 1613

* -All autocrats and were reluctant to reforms. By late 1918- all dynasties disappeared. * -Great Britain had a monarch- constitutional monarch (parliament governing body and monarch head of state) * -France republican parliamentary democracy in 1870. Then a republican government with hopes to restore its monarchy government later on didn’t happen) Weak republic and monarchist died out. Government like Australia but they also had a president. * Left Wing| * Right Wing|

* Believe the country is more important than the individual * Governments are a force for social justice and change, and so should intervene in individual’s lives to ensure social justice is achieved. * Substantial equality. Examples of left wing substantial equality include affirmative action and social and cultural rights| * Believe that the individual is more important than the country * Governments are big and unwieldy and so should not interfere with people’s lives at all. They believe that government interference contravenes an individual’s right to liberty. * Formal equality. Examples of right wing formal equality include equal pay for equal work and civil and political rights.| * Imperialism:

* Imperialism- increasing a nations power by taking advantage of their resources * Reasons for imperialism- gaining land, power, influence worldwide, sought to control, aggressive pursuits of colonies, intense rivalry * 20% of the earth’s surface came under imperialists control (mainly Africa) * Ranks in the world-

Britain- ‘the sun never set on the British empire’ controlled over 390 million people French- 2nd largest empire controlled over 58 million people, 40 million in France Germany- 30 years old in 1901-...
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