Chapter 3 Basic Geriatrics Study Guide

Topics: Hypertension, Blood, Myocardial infarction Pages: 6 (1344 words) Published: October 7, 2013
Chapter 3 Study Guide/Key Terms
Physiologic Changes pg. 384-386

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

1. With aging, the __epidermis (skin)___ becomes increasingly fragile and subject to damage. 2. Clusters of __melanocytes___ cause age spots. The medical term for these is __senile lentigo__. 3. Loss of ___elastin fibers (elasticity)___ results in wrinkles. 4. Dry skin, or __xerosis__, is likely to result in itching, or __pruritus___. 5. Common skin disorders in older adults include:

a. carcinoma
b. melanoma
c. pressure ulcers
d. inflammation
e. infections
f. senile purpura
6. Loss of subcutaneous tissue can reduce the ability of older adults to regulate body temperature, leading to an increased risk for __hypothermia____.

MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

7. Aging bones tend to show loss of the mineral __Calcium__. 8. Shrinkage of intervertebral disks leads to a condtion called _ Kyphosis__, which results in a hunchback appearance. 9. Muscle mass and tone typically ___decrease___ with age, but this effect can be reduced by regular _____exercise____. 10. Excessive loss of calcium results in _Osteoporosis_, which is characterized by __porous__, __brittle__, __fragile__ bones that are susceptible to __breakage__. 11. Three forms of arthritis that are seen in the aging population are __Osteoarthritis_, __rheumatoid arthritis_, and __gouty arthritis__.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

12. The _air passageways__ and _lung tissue_ of the chest cavity change with aging. 13. Common respiratory disorders observed with aging include: a. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

b. Influenza
c. Pneumonia
d. Tuberculosis
e. Lung Cancer

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

14. Changes in the blood vessels with aging increase the risk for low blood pressure with position changes. This is called __Orthostatic hypotension__. 15. Chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle is known as __angina pectoris__. 16. Heart __valves__ become less pliant with age, resulting in _incomplete_ sealing valves during heart beat. 17. Loss of heart pumping effectiveness, called __CHF__ or __Congestive Heart Failure_, is a common cardiac problem in older adults. This condition can be characterized as __chronic_ or __acute__. 18. Cardiomegaly, or __enlargement__ of the heart, is commonly observed with congestive heart failure. 19. Arteriosclerosis results in loss of _elasticity_ in the blood vessels. 20. Plaque formation is enhanced by lifestyle factors that include: a. obesity

b. high cholesterol intake
c. cigarette smoking
21. Hypertension affects more than __50__% of individuals older than 65 years old.

HEMATOPOIETIC AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS

22. Blood values for erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets generally remain _within normal limits_ with aging. 23. Changes in T cells results in a _diminished_ immune response, leading to modified signs of __infection_. 24. Changes in the signs of infection seen with aging include: a. body temperature may not become significantly elevated until the infection is severe b. pain may not be present to indicate infection

GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

25. A protrusion of the stomach into the thoracic cavity, known as a _hiatal hernia_, is commonly seen with aging. Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or __heartburn__, results in movement of stomach contents into the _esophagus_, increasing the risk for __aspiration__. 26. Drugs that increase the risk for ulcer formation in older adults include: a. iron supplement

b. aspirin
c. NSAIDs
27. Weakness of the intestinal mucosa leads to the formation of _diverticula_. 28. The incidence of colon cancer peaks between __60__ and __75__ years of age.

URINARY SYSTEM

29. The kidneys lose approximately _ 1/3__ of their efficiency by age 70, resulting in less _concentrated_ urine....
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